守望的麦子

哲学导论_第二周_什么是知识? - Duncan Pritchard

2015-10-6    曼谷 /mooc/2015/10/06/knowledge.html mooc

中文版 https://www.coursera.org/learn/zhexue-daolun/home/week/2

知识的基本成分

我们处于一个信息时代,知识的获取比以前任何时候都要轻松的多。而更多的选择并不意味着一定是一件好事,除非我们知道哪些是好的,哪些是坏的;哪些是有效的,哪些是无效的。所以,面对更多更便捷的选择,能够从海量的信息中获取需要的、有效的知识就尤其重要。

Propositional Knowledge(know-that): 所谓的“命题式知识”,指的是那些特定领域的描述性(陈述性)知识,简单概括来说,这一类的知识可以类比于“命题”,通常非真即伪。

例如,“The cat is on the mat.”,对于这一描述的结论是:true 或者 false,而并不存在其他的答案。

描述性的知识的特点是 — this is the case.

我们看另一个句子 “Shut that door.”,它并不存在“非真即伪”的结论,所以这不是描述性的句子(知识)。

与 Propositional Knowledge 相对应的是 Ability Knowledge。

Ability Knowledge(know-how): know-that VS. know-know…

Two conditions for propositional knowledge

1.Knowledge requires truth.
We can’t know a falsehood.

2.Knowledge also requires belief.

Knowledge and Belief

if you know a proposition, then you must at least believe that proposition. So, if you know that Paris is the capital of France, then you must at least believe that Paris is the capital of France. Now, of course, sometimes we explicitly contrast belief and knowledge. So we might say something like, I don’t merely believe that Paris is the capital of France, I know it. And the suggestion seems to be there that knowledge is different from belief. Because what we really mean when we say something like that, is that I don’t merely believe it. So I don’t just believe it, but I, in addition to that, I know it. So what we’re signaling there is the idea that knowledge is something stronger than belief. But of course that’s entirely compatible with the thought that knowledge at the very least requires belief.

Knowledge doesn’t require certainty, it doesn’t require infallibility, but it is inconsistent with knowing a falsehood.

Knowledge requires truth and it requires belief, requires true beliefs. 这即意味着“命题式的知识”需要我们正确地了解事实(getting it right)并且相信它。

首先,很难想象如果我们正确地了解事实之后,会不相信自己的理解。但是,我们确信某一件事物,却并不代表我们就具备了这一方面的知识(正确地了解事实)。这是不是也可以说明“知识是强于信念的”呢?

getting it right

在上面的思考基础上,我们可以继续追问自己,如何做到“正确地去了解事实”呢?

Knowing VS. Getting it right

knowing is getting to the truth in the right kind of way.

the nature of knowledge

anti-luck intuition

ability intuition

二者的区别并不明显,甚至有时候是相辅相成。

我们可以知道我们的认识如果不是基于运气,不是源自能力,那么它是什么?由此去进一步思考如何去探索真理/真相……

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麦子,80 后,现从事通信行业。安卓玩家一个人的书房朗读者。
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